Standards of Professional Practice for Arizona Home Inspectors:


The Arizona Standards of Practice are adopted from the American Society of Home
Inspectors (ASHI) 1992 Standards of Practice, through the Arizona Chapter of the
American Society of Home Inspectors, with Arizona made modifications and
amendments. The Arizona Board of Technical Registration gratefully acknowledges the
assistance and permission of the American Society of Home Inspectors, and the
assistance of the Arizona Chapter of the American Society of Home Inspectors.


1.1 These Standards define the practice of Home Inspection in the State of Arizona. 

1.2 These Standards of Practice 

A. provide inspection guidelines. 

B. make public the services provided by private fee-paid inspectors. 


2.1 Inspections performed to these Standards shall provide the client with a better 

understanding of the property conditions, as observed at the time of the inspection. 

2.2 Inspectors shall: 

A. before the inspection report is delivered, enter into a written agreement with the 

client or their authorized agent that includes: 

1. the purpose of the inspection. 

2. the date of the inspection. 

3. the name address and certification number of the inspector. 

4. the fee for services. 

5. a statement that the inspection is performed in accordance with these 


6. limitations or exclusions of systems or components inspected. 

B. Observe readily accessible installed systems and components listed in these 


C. submit a written report to the client which shall: 

1. Describe systems and components identified in sections 4-12 of these 

Standards. 2. state which systems and components designated for inspection in these 

Standards have been inspected and any systems and components

designated for inspection in these Standards which were present at the 

time of the inspection and were not inspected and a reason why they were 

not inspected. 

3. state any systems and components so inspected which were found to be in 

need of immediate major repair and any recommendations to correct, 

monitor or evaluate by appropriate persons. 

2.3 These Standards are not intended to limit inspectors from: 

A. reporting observations and conditions in addition to those required in Section 2.2. 

B. excluding systems and components from the inspection if requested by the client.


3.1 General limitations: 

A. Inspections done in accordance with these Standards are visual, not technically 

exhaustive and will not identify concealed conditions or latent defects. 

B. These Standards are applicable to buildings with four or less dwelling units and 

their garages or carports. 

3.2 General exclusions: 

A. Inspectors are NOT required to report on: 

1. life expectancy of any component or system. 

2. the causes of the need for a major repair. 

3. the methods, materials and costs of corrections. 

4. the suitability of the property for any specialized use. 

5. compliance or non-compliance with applicable regulatory requirements. 

6. the market value of the property or its marketability. 

7. the advisability or inadvisability of purchase of the property. 

8. any component or system which was not observed. 

9. the presence or absence of pests such as wood damaging organisms, 

rodents, or insects. 

10. cosmetic items, underground items, or items not permanently installed. 

B. Inspectors are NOT required to: 

1. offer warranties or guarantees of any kind. 

2. calculate the strength, adequacy, or efficiency of any system or 


3. enter any area or perform any procedure which may damage the property 

or its components or be dangerous to the inspector or other persons. 

4. operate any system or component which is shut down or otherwise 


5. operate any system or component which does not respond to normal 

operating controls. 

6. disturb insulation, move personal items, furniture, equipment, plant life, 

soil, snow, ice, or debris which obstructs access or visibility.

7. determine the presence or absence of any suspected hazardous substance 

including but not limited to toxins, fungus, molds, mold spores, 

carcinogens, noise, contaminants in soil, water, and air. 

8. determine the effectiveness of any system installed to control or remove 

suspected hazardous substances. 

9. predict future conditions, including but not limited to failure of 


10. project operating costs of components. 

11. evaluate acoustical characteristics of any system or component. 

3.3 Limitations and exclusions specific to individual systems are listed in 

following sections.


4.1 The inspector shall observe: 

A. structural components including: 

1. foundation. 

2. floors. 

3. walls. 

4. columns. 

5. ceilings. 

6. roofs. 

4.2 The Inspector shall: 

A. describe the type of: 

1. foundation. 

2. floor structure. 

3. wall structure. 

4. columns. 

5. ceiling structure. 

6. roof structure. 

B. probe structural components where deterioration is suspected. However, probing 

is NOT required when probing would damage any finished surface. 

C. enter underfloor crawl spaces and attic spaces except when access is obstructed, 

when entry could damage the property, or when dangerous or adverse situations 

are suspected. 

D. report the methods used to inspect underfloor crawl spaces and attics. 

E. report signs of water penetration into the building or signs of abnormal or harmful 

condensation on building components. 


5.1 The inspector shall observe: 

A. wall cladding, flashings and trim. 

B. entryway doors and representative number of windows. 

C. garage door operators. 

D. decks, balconies, stoops, steps, areaways, and porches including railings. 

E. eaves, soffits and fascias. 

F. vegetation, grading, drainage, driveways, patios, walkways and retaining walls 

with respect to their effect on the condition of the building. 

5.2 The inspector shall: 

A. describe wall cladding materials. 

B. operate all entryway doors and representative number of windows including 

garage doors, manually or by using permanently installed controls of any garage 

door operator. 

C. report whether or not any garage door operator will automatically reverse or stop 

when meeting reasonable resistance during closing. 

5.3 The inspector is NOT required to observe: 

A. storm windows, storm doors, screening, shutters, awnings and similar seasonal 


B. fences. 

C. safety glazing. 

D. garage door operator remote control transmitters. 

E. geological conditions. 

F. soil conditions. 

G. recreational facilities. 

H. outbuildings other than garages and carports. 



6.1 The inspector shall observe: 

A. roof coverings. 

B. roof drainage systems. 

C. flashings. 

D. skylights, chimneys and roof penetrations. 

E. signs of leaks or abnormal condensation on building components. 

6.2 The inspector shall: 

A. describe the type of roof covering materials. 

B. report the methods used to inspect roofing. 

6.3 The inspector is NOT required to: 

A. walk on the roofing.

B. observe attached accessories including but not limited to solar systems, antennae, 

and lightning arresters. 


7.1 The inspector shall observe: 

A. interior water supply and distribution system including: 

1. piping materials, including supports and insulation. 

2. fixtures and faucets. 

3. functional flow. 

4. leaks. 

5. cross connections. 

B. interior drain, waste and vent system, including: 

1. traps; drain, waste, and vent piping; piping supports and pipe insulation. 

2. leaks. 

3. functional drainage. 

C. hot water systems including: 

1. water heating equipment. 

2. normal operating controls. 

3. automatic safety controls. 

4. chimneys, flues and vents. 

D. fuel storage and distribution systems including: 

1. interior fuel storage equipment, supply piping, venting and supports. 

2. leaks. 

E. sump pumps. 

7.2 The inspector shall: 

A. describe: 

1. water supply and distribution piping materials. 

2. drain, waste and vent piping materials. 

3. water heating equipment. 

B. operate all plumbing fixtures, including their faucets and all exterior faucets 

attached to the house. 

7.3 The inspector is NOT required to: 

A. state the effectiveness of anti-siphon devices. 

B. determine whether water supply and waste disposal systems are public or private. 

C. operate automatic safety controls. 

D. operate any valve except water closet flush valves, fixture faucets and hose 


E. observe: 

1. water conditioning systems. 

2. fire and lawn sprinkler systems. 

3. on-site water supply quantity and quality. 

4. on-site waste disposal systems. 

5. foundation irrigation systems. 6. spas, except as to functional flow and functional drainage. 



8.1 The inspector shall observe: 

A. service entrance conductors. 

B. service equipment, grounding equipment, main overcurrent device, main and 

distribution panels. 

C. amperage and voltage ratings of the service. 

D. branch circuit conductors, their overcurrent devices, and the compatibility of their 

ampacities and voltages. 

E. the operation of a representative number of installed lighting fixtures, switches 

and receptacles located inside the house, garage, and on its exterior walls. 

F. the polarity and grounding of all receptacles within six feet of interior plumbing 

fixtures and all receptacles in the garage or carport, and on the exterior of 

inspected structures. 

G. the operation of ground fault circuit interrupters. 

8.2 The inspector shall: 

A. describe: 

1. service amperage and voltage. 

2. service entry conductor materials. 

3. service type as being overhead or underground. 

4. location of main and distribution panels. 

B. report any observed aluminum branch circuit wiring. 

8.3 The inspector is NOT required to: 

A. insert any tool, probe or testing device inside the panels. 

B. test or operate any overcurrent device except ground fault interrupters. 

C. dismantle any electrical device or control other than to remove covers of the main 

and auxiliary distribution panels. 

D. observe 

1. low voltage systems. 

2. smoke detectors. 

3. telephone, security, cable TV, intercoms or other ancillary wiring that is not a part 

of the primary electrical distribution system. 


9.1 The inspector shall observe: 

A. permanently installed heating systems including: 

1. heating equipment. 

2. normal operating controls. 

3. automatic safety controls. 

4. chimneys, flues and vents. 5. solid fuel heating devices. 

6. heat distribution systemsincluding fans, pumps, ducts and piping, with supports, 

dampers, insulation, air filters, registers, radiators, fan coil units, convectors. 

7. the presence of an installed heat source in each room. 

9.2 The inspector shall: 

A. describe: 

1. energy source. 

2. heating equipment and distribution type. 

B. operate the systems using normal operating controls. 

C. open readily openable access panels provided by the manufacturer or installer for 

routine homeowner maintenance. 

9.3 The inspector is NOT required to: 

A. operate heating systems when weather conditions or other circumstances may 

cause equipment damage. 

B. operate automatic safety controls. 

D. ignite or extinguish solid fuel fires. 

E. observe: 

1. the interior of flues. 

2. fireplace insert flue connections. 

3. humidifiers. 

4. electronic air filters. 

5. the uniformity or adequacy of heat supply to the various rooms. 



10.1 The inspector shall observe: 

A. central air conditioning including: 

1. cooling and air handling equipment. 

2. normal operating controls. 

B. distribution systems including: 

1. fans, pumps, ducts and piping, with supports, dampers, insulation, air filters, 

registers, fan-coil units. 

2. the presence of an installed cooling source in each room. 

10.2 The inspector shall: 

A. describe: 

1. energy sources. 

2. cooling equipment type. 

B. operate the systems using normal operating controls. 

C. open readily openable access panels provided by the manufacturer or installer for 

routine homeowner maintenance. 

10.3 The inspector is NOT required to: 



11.1 The inspector shall observe: 

A. walls, ceiling and floors. 

B. steps, stairways, balconies and railings. 

C. counters and a representative number of cabinets. 

D. a representative number of doors and windows. 

E. separation walls, ceilings, and doors between a dwelling unit and an attached 

garage or another dwelling unit. 

F. sumps. 

11.2 The inspector shall: 

A. operate a representative number of primary windows and interior doors. 

B. report signs of water penetration into the building or signs of abnormal or harmful 

condensation on building components. 

11.3 The inspector is NOT required to observe: 

A. paint, wallpaper and other finish treatments on the interior walls, ceilings, and 


B. carpeting. 

C. draperies, blinds or other window treatments. 

D. household appliances. 

E. recreational facilities or another dwelling unit. 



12.1 The inspector shall observe: 

A. insulation and vapor retarders in unfinished spaces. 

B. ventilation of attics and foundation areas. 

C. kitchen, bathroom, and laundry venting systems. 

12.2 The inspector shall describe: 

A. insulation and vapor retarders in unfinished spaces. 

B. absence of same in unfinished space at conditioned surfaces. 

12.3 The inspector is NOT required to report on: 

A. concealed insulation and vapor retarders. 

B. venting equipment which is integral with household appliances. 

Automatic Safety Controls: 

Devices designated and installed to protect systems and components from high or low pressures and 

temperatures, electrical current, loss of water, loss of ignition, fuel leaks, fire, freezing, or other unsafe 


Central Air Conditioning: 

A system which uses ducts to distribute cooled and/or dehumidified air to more than one room or uses pipes to distribute chilled water to heat exchangers in more than one room, and that is not plugged into an electrical convenience outlet. 


A customer who contracts with a home inspector for a home inspection. 


A readily accessible and observable aspect of a system, such as a floor, or wall, but not individual pieces 

such as boards or nails where many similar pieces make up the system. 

Cross Connection: 

Any physical connection or arrangement between potable water and any source of contamination. 

Dangerous or Adverse Situations: 

Situations which pose a threat of injury to the inspector, and those situations that require the use of special protective clothing or safety equipment. 


Report in writing a system or component by its type, or other observed characteristics, to distinguish it from other components used for the same purpose. 


To take apart or remove any component, device or piece of equipment that is bolted, screwed, or fastened by other means and that would not be taken apart or removed by a homeowner in the course of normal household maintenance. 


Any professional service or creative work requiring education, training, and experience and the application of special knowledge of the mathematical, physical and engineering sciences 

Evaluation by Appropriate Persons: 

Examination and analysis by a qualified professional, tradesman, or service technician beyond that 

provided by the home inspector. 

Functional Drainage: 

A drain is functional when it empties in a reasonable amount of time and does not overflow when another 

fixture is drained simultaneously. 

Functional Flow: 

A reasonable flow at the highest fixture in a dwelling when another fixture is operated simultaneously. 

Immediate Major Repair: 

A major defect, which if not quickly addressed, will be likely to do any of the following: 

1. worsen appreciably 

2. cause further damage 

3. be a serious hazard to health and/or personal safety 


A person certified as a home Inspector by the Arizona Board of Technical Registration 


Attached or connected such that the installed item requires tools for removal. 

Major Defect: 

A system or component that is unsafe or not functioning 

Normal Operating Controls: 

Homeowner operated devices such as a thermostat, wall switch or safety switch. 


The act of making a visual examination of a system or component and reporting on its condition. 

On-site Water Supply Quality: 

Water quality is based on the bacterial, chemical, mineral and solids content of the water. 

On-site Water Supply Quantity: 

Water quantity is the rate of flow of water. 

Primary Windows and Doors: 

Windows and/or exterior doors which are designed to remain in their respective openings year round. 

Readily Accessible: 

Available for visual inspection without requiring moving of personal property, dismantling, destructive 

measures, or any action which will likely involve risk to persons or property. 

Readily Openable Access Panel: 

A panel provided for homeowner inspection and maintenance that has removable or operable fasteners or latch devices in order to be lifted off, swung open, or otherwise removed by one person, and its edges and fasteners are not painted in place. Limited to those panels within normal reach or from a 4-foot stepladder, and which are not blocked by stored items, furniture, or building components. 

Recreational Facilities: 

Spas, saunas, steam baths, swimming pools, tennis courts, playground equipment, and other exercise, 

entertainment, or athletic facilities. 

Representative Number: 

For multiple identical components such as windows and electrical outlets, the inspection of one such 

component per room. For multiple identical exterior components, the inspection of one such component on each side of the building. 

Roof Drainage Systems: 

Gutters, downspouts, leaders, splash blocks, and similar components used to carry water off a roof and 

away from a building. 

Safety Glazing: 

Tempered glass, laminated glass, or rigid plastic. 

Shut Down: 

A piece of equipment whose safety switch or circuit breaker is in the “off” position, or its fuse is missing or 

blown, or a system that cannot be operated by the device or control that a home owner should normally use to operate it. 

Solid Fuel Heating Device: 

Any wood, coal, or other similar organic fuel burning device, including but not limited to fireplaces 

whether masonry or factory built, fireplace inserts and stoves, woodstoves (room heaters), central furnaces, and combinations of these devices. 

Structural Component: 

A component that supports non-variable forces or weights (dead loads) and variable forces or weights (live loads). For purposes of this definition, a dead load is the fixed weight of a structure or piece of equipment, such as a roof structure on bearing walls, and a live load is a moving variable weight added to the dead load or intrinsic weight of a structure. 


A combination of interacting or interdependent components, assembled to carry out one or more functions. 

Technically Exhaustive: 

An inspection is technically exhaustive when it involves the use of measurements, instruments, testing, 

calculations, and other means to develop scientific or engineering findings, conclusions, and 


Underfloor Crawl Space: 

The area within the confines of the foundation and between the ground and the underside of the lowest 

floor structural component. 


A condition in a readily accessible, installed system or component which is judged to be a significant risk 

of personal injury during normal, day to day use. The risk may be due to damage, deterioration, improper 

installation or a change in adopted residential.


NACHI Standards of Practice
InterNACHI Code of Ethics